Schooling of a child in India usually starts at the age of 3-4. All states follow a uniform academic system i.e. the 10+2 system or higher secondary. The curricula are either developed by the respective state boards/councils or by the national boards like the Central Board of secondary education (CBSE) or by Council for the Indian School Certificate Examinations (CISCE). All curricula are not the same; however, the basic knowledge of Science, including Physics, Chemistry, Biology and Mathematics is compulsory for every student till 10th grade.
After class 10th, a student may choose any of the available streams. In class 11th and 12th, those who take science, learn the basics of Applied Physics, Applied Chemistry, Plant and Animal Biology and/or Higher Math. After completion of Class 12, one can either take the conventional way i.e. do courses such as B.Sc and MSc or can opt for a professional career such as B.Tech and MBBS.
Looking at the quality and scope of Science education in India, the non uniformity in the system is quite visible. This may be due to various causes. One major cause is the socio-economic difference between rural and urban India. However, the state as well the union governments are in a constant endeavor to fill this gap up and to provide every citizen of the country quality as well as affordable education. Higher education, particularly in science discipline is offered by universities and colleges located in various parts of the country. Majority of universities in India train a large number of graduate students. Due to issues like infrastructure, proper quality control of faculty, a majority of the students find it difficult to fine-tune themselves with the complexities of science education at this level. Weak understanding of the concepts results in Incompetence. The curriculum is robust in structure – but is very difficult in implementation. To overcome this situation, the government has been implementing various recommendations made by HRD Ministry and other organization like National Knowledge Commission. Similarly, research activities in Science discipline have not yet gained much distinction. The government has established several research centers all over the country for carrying out research activities in a particular field. Also, universities through out the country have been assigned with various projects to perform research work. Creating enthusiasm among students to learn science is the most widespread activity in India being carried out at present. The government is popularizing the discipline by means of popular science articles, organizing lectures, through various scholarship schemes and through the establishment of science centers etc. Efforts in this direction have come from both individuals and from institutions. There are several organizations and institutions both public and private trying to change the scene of science education in India.
Career Opportunities in Science Education Science as a discipline is vast, and making a career in this field is really challenging but rewarding. Students who have an interest to discover some new things or who want to gain knowledge through learning and practices can make career in Science or allied disciplines. Mentioned below are some of the careers that one can pursue after taking up science in Higher Secondary. Agricultural Education deals with instruction about crop production, livestock management, soil and water conservation, and various other aspects of agriculture. Agricultural education includes instruction in food education, such as nutrition. To know more about career in the field of Agricultural Education, Aqua Science also known as aquatic science is the study of Earth's inter related processes, that is, the atmosphere, oceans and land masses to the changes in the Earth. To know more about career in the field of Aqua Science, Astronomy is a natural science that deals with the study of celestial objects such as stars, planets, comets, nebulae, star clusters and galaxies and phenomena that originate outside the Earth's atmosphere such as the cosmic background radiation. It is concerned with the evolution, physics, chemistry, meteorology, and motion of celestial objects, as well as the formation and development of the universe. To know more about career in the field of Astronomy, Biochemistry is the study of chemical processes in plants, animals and other living organisms. Biochemistry governs all living organisms and living processes. By controlling information flow through biochemical signalling and the flow of chemical energy through metabolism, biochemical processes create life. To know more about career in the field of Biochemistry, Bioinformatics is the use of computer technology to the management of biological information. Computers are used to gather, store, analyze and integrate biological and genetic information which can then be applied to gene-based drug discovery and development. To know more about career in the field of Bioinformatics, Biostatistics also known as biometrics is the application of statistics to a wide range of topics in biology. The science of biostatistics encompasses the design of biological experiments, especially in medicine and agriculture; the collection, summarization, and analysis of data from those experiments; and the interpretation of, and inference from, the results. To know more about career in the field of Biostatistics, Electronics is the branch of science and technology which makes use of the controlled motion of electrons through different media. The ability to control electron flow is usually applied to information handling or device control. Electronics is different from electrical science, which deals with the generation, distribution, control and application of electrical power. To know more about career in the field of Electronics, Environmental Science is an interdisciplinary academic field that integrates physical and biological sciences, (including physics, chemistry, biology, soil science, geology, and geography) to the study of the environment, and the solution of environmental problems. Environmental science provides an integrated, quantitative, and interdisciplinary approach to the study of environmental systems. To know more about career in the field of Environmental science, Forensic Science is the application of scientific principles for the investigation of crime. Using technology, forensic scientists convert the clues collected from a crime scene into evidence admissible in a court of law. To know more about career in the field of Forensic science, Food Technology or Food tech for short is the application of food science to the selection, preservation, processing, packaging, distribution, and use of safe, nutritious, and wholesome food. To know more about career in the field of Food technology Forest Ranger is a person entrusted with protecting and preserving parklands - national, state, provincial, or local parks. A forest ranger protects people from resources, and resources from people. To know more about this field, Geology is the science and study of the solid Earth and the processes by which it is shaped and changed. Geology provides primary evidence for plate tectonics, the history of life and evolution, and past climates. To know more about career in the field of Geology, Horticulture is the industry and science of plant cultivation including the process of preparing soil for the planting of seeds, tubers, or cuttings. To know more about career in the field of Horticulture, Home Science education was initially designed and structured around the urban home makers and her family and community. With the advent of Agricultural Universities, the focus of Home Science was shifted to the rural family with emphasis on intra-family resources, since rural families are composite and integrated units which function as both consumption and production units. the curricula was thus formulated in this dimension and appropriately implemented. To know more about career in the field of Home Science, Meteorology is the interdisciplinary scientific study of the atmosphere that focuses on weather processes and short term forecasting. Meteorology, climatology, atmospheric physics, and atmospheric chemistry are sub-disciplines of the atmospheric sciences. To know more about career in the field of Meteorology, Molecular Biology is the branch of biology that deals with the nature of biological phenomena at the molecular level through the study of DNA and RNA, proteins, and other macromolecules involved in genetic information and cell function. To know more about career in the field of Molecular biology, Oceanography is the branch of Earth science that studies the ocean. It covers a wide range of topics, including marine organisms and ecosystem dynamics; ocean currents, waves, and geophysical fluid dynamics; plate tectonics and the geology of the sea floor; and fluxes of various chemical substances and physical properties within the ocean and across its boundaries. To know more about career in the field of Oceanography, Plant Pathology is also known as phytopathology. Plant pathology is the scientific study of plant diseases caused by pathogens (infectious diseases) and environmental conditions (physiological factors). To know more about career in the field of Plant pathology, Physical Science according to britannica, is the systematic study of the inorganic world, as distinct from the study of the organic world, which is the province of biological science. Physical science is ordinarily thought of as consisting of four broad areas: astronomy, physics, chemistry, and the Earth sciences. To know more about career in the field of Physical science The science of photonics includes generation, emission, transmission, modulation, signal processing, switching, amplification, detection and sensing of light. To know more about career in the field of photonics,
Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation
Preventive and Social Medicine
Tuberculosis and Respiratory diseases
Emergency and Critical care
Skin and Vereral diseases
Ear, Nose and Throat
Obstetrics and Gynaecology
Dermatology, Venerology and Leprosy
Immunohematology and transfusion medicine
Maternal and Child Health
Obstetric and Gynecology
Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation
Social and Preventive Medicine