top of page

Elementary, Primary, Secondary and Higher Education in India


The education system of India is one of the largest of its kind in the world. More than 102.8 million people come under this education system.Elementary education in India has been emphasized to increase the literacy percentage of the country.India’s post-independence period has seen the launch of various schemes by the Government to promote education among the masses and to achieve universalization of elementary education in the country.The constitutional and legal statements that appear time to time are as follows:



Constitutional mandate, 1950 - "The State shall endeavor to provide, within a period of ten years from the commencement of this Constitution, for free and compulsory education to all children until they complete the age of 14 years."


National Policy of Education, 1986 - "It shall be ensured that free and compulsory education of a satisfactory level is provided to all children up to 14 years of age before we enter the twenty first century".


Unnikrishnan Judgment, 1993 - "Every child/citizen of this country has a right to free education until he completes the age of fourteen years."

The elementary education in India starts from the early child hood days.The system includes three stages: pre-primary, primary and middle level.The analytical report, given below, gives an insight into the state of elementary education in different states in the country.

The pre-primary education begins at the age of five and it continues for one year.This is the initial stage of a child in his/her educational career.When the child reaches an age of six, he or she prepares to go for primary education.

Primary Education

The primary schooling system starts at the age of six.The Primary Stage consists of either from Classes I-V or from I-IV depending upon the education system of the state.The five years system

i.e. Classes I-V is applicable in 20 States/UTs namely Andhra Pradesh, Arunachal Pradesh, Bihar, Haryana, Himachal Pradesh, Jammu & Kashmir, Madhya Pradesh, Manipur, Orissa, Punjab, Rajasthan, Sikkim, Tamil Nadu, Tripura, Uttar Pradesh, West Bengal, Andaman & Nicobar Islands, Chandigarh, Delhi and Karaikal and Yanam regions of Pondicherry.The four year system consists of classes I-IV which is applicable in Assam, Goa, Gujarat, Karnataka, Kerala, Maharashtra, Meghalaya, Mizoram, Nagaland, Dadra & Nagar Haveli, Daman & Diu, Lakshadweep and Mahe region of Pondicherry.

The middle stage of education consists of classes either from VI-VIII or from VI-VII depending upon the states or union territories.The 18 states which come under the first category are:

Arunachal Pradesh, Bihar, Haryana, Himachal Pradesh, Jammu & Kashmir, Madhya Pradesh, Manipur, Punjab, Rajasthan, Sikkim, Tamil Nadu, Tripura, Uttar Pradesh, West Bengal, Andaman & Nicobar Islands, Chandigarh, Delhi and Karaikal region of Pondicherry.

The second system (VI-VII) is effective in states like Assam, Goa, Gujarat, Karnataka, Kerala, Maharashtra, Meghalaya, Mizoram, Dadra & Nagar Haveli, Daman & Diu, Lakshadweep and Mahe region of Pondicherry.



Stages:

Secondary education in India starts form class VIII or IX depending upon the states or union territories.


The Secondary Stage consists of Classes IX-X in 19 States/UTs. Viz., Arunachal Pradesh, Bihar, Haryana, Himachal Pradesh, Jammu & Kashmir, Madhya Pradesh, Manipur, Nagaland, Punjab, Rajasthan , Sikkim, Tamil Nadu, Tripura, Uttar Pradesh, West Bengal, Andaman & Nicobar Islands, Chandigarh, Delhi and Karaikal region of Pondicherry.



The other stage i.e. classes VIII to X is adopted in 13 States/UTs viz., Andhra Pradesh, Assam, Goa, Gujarat, Karnataka, Kerala, Maharashtra, Meghalaya, Mizoram, Orissa, Dadra & Nagar Haveli, Daman & Diu, Lakshadweep and Mahe & Yanam regions of Pondicherry.



The Higher Secondary / Senior Secondary stage of school (classes XI-XII) which comes under the 10+2 pattern is available in all the States/UTs though in some States/UTs these classes run in Junior colleges or are attached with universities.


​Secondary Education in India


Secondary schooling system in IndiaSecondary school education comprises of two years of lower secondary and two years of higher secondary education. The lower secondary level is for students aged 14 to 16 years. Admission requirement is the completion of upper primary school education. Instruction is more organized along specific subjects.


Medium of Study:

The medium of instruction at primary level is the regional language of the respective state.Teaching of Hindi and English is compulsory in most of the non-Hindi speaking states.The states like Tamil Nadu, Tripura and Karaikal region of Pondicherry have not accepted Hindi as a compulsory subject to be included in their syllabus.



Final Examinations:

The final examinations are conducted at the end of classes X and XII in all states and Union Territories. The State Boards or Councils conduct these examinations.The age limit for secondary exams varies from 14 to 16 whereas for higher secondary it varies from 16+ to 18+ years. In some states the first final examination is conducted at the middle school level of education.



Academic Session:

The academic session usually begins from July after a long summer vacation in most of the states but it is different in hilly states where the winter vacation is significant.


The total number of working days is more than 200 days in all states and Union Territories.


Higher Education in India


Introduction

The Higher Education sector of India is the third largest in the world in terms of number of students.The higher education refers to the study in colleges, universities and research centres.After the completion of class 12th or intermediate course a student generally goes for higher study.The country has about 380 universities and deemed universities, over 17,500 colleges and hundreds of national and regional research institutes.The institutes for higher learning in India follow specific rules as made by the state or the central government.There are also some statutory and autonomous bodies running in the country to regulate the higher education system in the country.




Undergraduate Colleges

The initial period of the higher education starts from the undergraduate level.After completion of intermediate level (i.e.10+2 or class 12th) in any stream a student is eligible to pursue higher education.



The duration of study is either three years or four years or even five years in case of Medical Science or Architecture etc. The Engineering degree is of four years duration and all other degree courses in Arts, Commerce and Basic Sciences are of three years duration.After successful completion of the course a student is awarded a degree by the college or by the university with which the college is affiliated.



There are more than 16,000 colleges in India.These colleges are affiliated to different universities of their state.The pattern of examination varies from one university to the other.Some holds annual examination while other conducts semesters.The total marks also differ from one university to the other.Some universities have started the “grading system” for awarding degrees.The syllabus for a particular course is designed by the affiliating university and it is in a state of modification from time to time.



The colleges of India follow the reservation policy as mandated by the government.There is provision of reservation of seats in colleges for special categories like Scheduled Castes (SCs), Scheduled Tribes (STs), Other Backward Castes (OBCs), Physically Challenged, Sports Personalities and other categories as classified by the reservation act.




Universities

A university is an institution of higher learning that offers degrees at all levels (Bachelor, Master or Doctorate) in different fields.There are as many as 300 universities in India which are either state, central or deemed universities.These universities provide different programmes and also carry out researches in respective fields.



The Post Graduate or Masters Degree programme is offered at all universities in the country. Generally the duration of masters’ degree programme is of two years.After successful completion of programme in any discipline, the student is awardedMasters degree in the same field.The student who undergoes Master programme would get intensive theory and practical classes.Sometime internships and trainings are also covered as a part of the programme of study to sharpen the skills of the student.



Universities of India follow the guidelines of the University Grant Commission (UGC). The funds are provided by the state governments or by the UGC.



Evaluation Process

Evaluation process in Indian Education System is meant for evaluating the academic standard of a student by awarding grades, divisions, marks or by any other forms as recognized by the government.



Grading system in secondary school


- 85% and above -Excellent


- 80-85% - Superior


- 70-80% - Very good


- 60-70% - Good


- 50-60% - Satisfactory


- 40-50% - Average


- 35-40% - Pass


- Below 40% - Fail



Grading systems in higher education institutions


- 60-100% - First Division


- 50-59% - Second Division


- 40-49% - Third Division


The most predominant form of grading system (in evaluation process) in the country is the percentage system. In this process the marks obtained by the student is divided by the maximum marks to obtain the percentage for award of division or class.


However some universities in India have started to follow a marking system based on a grade point average.The grading system in these institutes is a Cumulative Grade Point Average (CGPA) on a 10 or 4 point scale. Notably, all the IITs, BITS Pilani (Pilani, Goa campuses) and most NITs use a 10-point Grade point Average (GPA) system.However, the grades themselves may be absolute (as in NITs), exclusively relative (as in BITS Pilani), or a combination of absolute, relative and/or historic, as in some IITs.


8 views0 comments

Recent Posts

See All

Comments


bottom of page